THE SYLLABUS OF ERRORS CONDEMNED BY PIUS IX
I. PANTHEISM, NATURALISM AND ABSOLUTE RATIONALISM
1. There exists no Supreme, all-wise,
all-provident Divine Being, distinct from the
universe, and God is identical with the nature of
things, and is, therefore, subject to changes. In
effect, God is produced in man and in the world,
and all things are God and have the very
substance of God, and God is one and the same
thing with the world, and, therefore, spirit with
matter, necessity with liberty, good with evil,
justice with injustice. -- Allocution "Maxima
quidem," June 9, 1862.
2. All action of God upon man and the world is to
be denied. -- Ibid.
3. Human reason, without any reference whatsoever
to God, is the sole arbiter of truth and
falsehood, and of good and evil; it is law to
itself, and suffices, by its natural force, to
secure the welfare of men and of nations. --
4. All the truths of religion proceed from the
innate strength of human reason; hence reason is
the ultimate standard by which man can and ought
to arrive at the knowledge of all truths of every
kind. -- Ibid. and Encyclical "Qui pluribus,"
Nov. 9, 1846, etc.
5. Divine revelation is imperfect, and therefore
subject to a continual and indefinite progress,
corresponding with the advancement of human
reason. -- Ibid.
6. The faith of Christ is in opposition to human
reason and divine revelation not only is not
useful, but is even hurtful to the perfection of
man. -- Ibid.
7. The prophecies and miracles set forth and
recorded in the Sacred Scriptures are the fiction
of poets, and the mysteries of the Christian
faith the result of philosophical investigations.
In the books of the Old and the New Testament
there are contained mythical inventions, and
Jesus Christ is Himself a myth.
II. MODERATE RATIONALISM
8. As human reason is placed on a level with
religion itself, so theological must be treated
in the same manner as philosophical sciences. --
Allocution "Singulari quadam," Dec. 9, 1854.
9. All the dogmas of the Christian religion are
indiscriminately the object of natural science or
philosophy, and human reason, enlightened solely
in an historical way, is able, by its own natural
strength and principles, to attain to the true
science of even the most abstruse dogmas;
provided only that such dogmas be proposed to
reason itself as its object. -- Letters to the
Archbishop of Munich, "Gravissimas inter," Dec.
11, 1862, and "Tuas libenter," Dec. 21, 1863.
10. As the philosopher is one thing, and
philosophy another, so it is the right and duty
of the philosopher to subject himself to the
authority which he shall have proved to be true;
but philosophy neither can nor ought to submit to
any such authority. -- Ibid., Dec. 11, 1862.
11. The Church not only ought never to pass
judgment on philosophy, but ought to tolerate the
errors of philosophy, leaving it to correct
itself. -- Ibid., Dec. 21, 1863.
12. The decrees of the Apostolic See and of the
Roman congregations impede the true progress of
science. -- Ibid.
13. The method and principles by which the old
scholastic doctors cultivated theology are no
longer suitable to the demands of our times and
to the progress of the sciences. -- Ibid.
14. Philosophy is to be treated without taking
any account of supernatural revelation. -- Ibid.
III. INDIFFERENTISM, LATITUDINARIANISM
15. Every man is free to embrace and profess that
religion which, guided by the light of reason, he
shall consider true. -- Allocution "Maxima
quidem," June 9, 1862; Damnatio "Multiplices
inter," June 10, 1851.
16. Man may, in the observance of any religion
whatever, find the way of eternal salvation, and
arrive at eternal salvation. -- Encyclical "Qui
pluribus," Nov. 9, 1846.
17. Good hope at least is to be entertained of
the eternal salvation of all those who are not at
all in the true Church of Christ. -- Encyclical
"Quanto conficiamur," Aug. 10, 1863, etc.
18. Protestantism is nothing more than another
form of the same true Christian religion, in
which form it is given to please God equally as
in the Catholic Church. -- Encyclical "Noscitis,"
Dec. 8, 1849.
IV. SOCIALISM, COMMUNISM, SECRET SOCIETIES,
BIBLICAL SOCIETIES, CLERICO-LIBERAL SOCIETIES
Pests of this kind are frequently reprobated in
the severest terms in the Encyclical "Qui
pluribus," Nov. 9, 1846, Allocution "Quibus
quantisque," April 20, 1849, Encyclical "Noscitis
et nobiscum," Dec. 8, 1849, Allocution "Singulari
quadam," Dec. 9, 1854, Encyclical "Quanto
conficiamur," Aug. 10, 1863.
V. ERRORS CONCERNING THE CHURCH AND HER RIGHTS
19. The Church is not a true and perfect society,
entirely free- nor is she endowed with proper and
perpetual rights of her own, conferred upon her
by her Divine Founder; but it appertains to the
civil power to define what are the rights of the
Church, and the limits within which she may
exercise those rights. -- Allocution "Singulari
quadam," Dec. 9, 1854, etc.
20. The ecclesiastical power ought not to
exercise its authority without the permission and
assent of the civil government. -- Allocution
"Meminit unusquisque," Sept. 30, 1861.
21. The Church has not the power of defining
dogmatically that the religion of the Catholic
Church is the only true religion. -- Damnatio
"Multiplices inter," June 10, 1851.
22. The obligation by which Catholic teachers and
authors are strictly bound is confined to those
things only which are proposed to universal
belief as dogmas of faith by the infallible
judgment of the Church. -- Letter to the
Archbishop of Munich, "Tuas libenter," Dec. 21,
23. Roman pontiffs and ecumenical councils have
wandered outside the limits of their powers, have
usurped the rights of princes, and have even
erred in defining matters of faith and morals. --
Damnatio "Multiplices inter," June 10, 1851.
24. The Church has not the power of using force,
nor has she any temporal power, direct or
indirect. -- Apostolic Letter "Ad Apostolicae,"
Aug. 22, 1851.
25. Besides the power inherent in the episcopate,
other temporal power has been attributed to it by
the civil authority granted either explicitly or
tacitly, which on that account is revocable by
the civil authority whenever it thinks fit. --
26. The Church has no innate and legitimate right
of acquiring and possessing property. --
Allocution "Nunquam fore," Dec. 15, 1856;
Encyclical "Incredibili," Sept. 7, 1863.
27. The sacred ministers of the Church and the
Roman pontiff are to be absolutely excluded from
every charge and dominion over temporal affairs.
-- Allocution "Maxima quidem," June 9, 1862.
28. It is not lawful for bishops to publish even
letters Apostolic without the permission of
Government. -- Allocution "Nunquam fore," Dec.
29. Favours granted by the Roman pontiff ought to
be considered null, unless they have been sought
for through the civil government. -- Ibid.
30. The immunity of the Church and of
ecclesiastical persons derived its origin from
civil law. -- Damnatio "Multiplices inter," June
31. The ecclesiastical forum or tribunal for the
temporal causes, whether civil or criminal, of
clerics, ought by all means to be abolished, even
without consulting and against the protest of the
Holy See. -- Allocution "Nunquam fore," Dec. 15,
1856; Allocution "Acerbissimum," Sept. 27, 1852.
32. The personal immunity by which clerics are
exonerated from military conscription and service
in the army may be abolished without violation
either of natural right or equity. Its abolition
is called for by civil progress, especially in a
society framed on the model of a liberal
government. -- Letter to the Bishop of Monreale
"Singularis nobisque," Sept. 29, 1864.
33. It does not appertain exclusively to the
power of ecclesiastical jurisdiction by right,
proper and innate, to direct the teaching of
theological questions. -- Letter to the
Archbishop of Munich, "Tuas libenter," Dec. 21,
34. The teaching of those who compare the
Sovereign Pontiff to a prince, free and acting in
the universal Church, is a doctrine which
prevailed in the Middle Ages. -- Apostolic Letter
"Ad Apostolicae," Aug. 22, 1851.
35. There is nothing to prevent the decree of a
general council, or the act of all peoples, from
transferring the supreme pontificate from the
bishop and city of Rome to another bishop and
another city. -- Ibid.
36. The definition of a national council does not
admit of any subsequent discussion, and the civil
authority car assume this principle as the basis
of its acts. -- Ibid.
37. National churches, withdrawn from the
authority of the Roman pontiff and altogether
separated, can be established. -- Allocution
"Multis gravibusque," Dec. 17, 1860.
38. The Roman pontiffs have, by their too
arbitrary conduct, contributed to the division of
the Church into Eastern and Western. -- Apostolic
Letter "Ad Apostolicae," Aug. 22, 1851.
VI. ERRORS ABOUT CIVIL SOCIETY, CONSIDERED BOTH
IN ITSELF AND IN ITS RELATION TO THE CHURCH
39. The State, as being the origin and source of
all rights, is endowed with a certain right not
circumscribed by any limits. -- Allocution
"Maxima quidem," June 9, 1862.
40. The teaching of the Catholic Church is
hostile to the well- being and interests of
society. -- Encyclical "Qui pluribus," Nov. 9,
1846; Allocution "Quibus quantisque," April 20,
41. The civil government, even when in the hands
of an infidel sovereign, has a right to an
indirect negative power over religious affairs.
It therefore possesses not only the right called
that of "exsequatur," but also that of appeal,
called "appellatio ab abusu." -- Apostolic Letter
"Ad Apostolicae," Aug. 22, 1851
42. In the case of conflicting laws enacted by
the two powers, the civil law prevails. -- Ibid.
43. The secular Dower has authority to rescind,
declare and render null, solemn conventions,
commonly called concordats, entered into with the
Apostolic See, regarding the use of rights
appertaining to ecclesiastical immunity, without
the consent of the Apostolic See, and even in
spite of its protest. -- Allocution "Multis
gravibusque," Dec. 17, 1860; Allocution "In
consistoriali," Nov. 1, 1850.
44. The civil authority may interfere in matters
relating to religion, morality and spiritual
government: hence, it can pass judgment on the
instructions issued for the guidance of
consciences, conformably with their mission, by
the pastors of the Church. Further, it has the
right to make enactments regarding the
administration of the divine sacraments, and the
dispositions necessary for receiving them. --
Allocutions "In consistoriali," Nov. 1, 1850, and
"Maxima quidem," June 9, 1862.
45. The entire government of public schools in
which the youth- of a Christian state is
educated, except (to a certain extent) in the
case of episcopal seminaries, may and ought to
appertain to the civil power, and belong to it so
far that no other authority whatsoever shall be
recognized as having any right to interfere in
the discipline of the schools, the arrangement of
the studies, the conferring of degrees, in the
choice or approval of the teachers. --
Allocutions "Quibus luctuosissimis," Sept. 5,
1851, and "In consistoriali," Nov. 1, 1850.
46. Moreover, even in ecclesiastical seminaries,
the method of studies to be adopted is subject to
the civil authority. -- Allocution "Nunquam
fore," Dec. 15, 1856.
47. The best theory of civil society requires
that popular schools open to children of every
class of the people, and, generally, all public
institutes intended for instruction in letters
and philosophical sciences and for carrying on
the education of youth, should be freed from all
ecclesiastical authority, control and
interference, and should be fully subjected to
the civil and political power at the pleasure of
the rulers, and according to the standard of the
prevalent opinions of the age. -- Epistle to the
Archbishop of Freiburg, "Cum non sine," July 14,
48. Catholics may approve of the system of
educating youth unconnected with Catholic faith
and the power of the Church, and which regards
the knowledge of merely natural things, and only,
or at least primarily, the ends of earthly social
life. -- Ibid.
49. The civil power may prevent the prelates of
the Church and the faithful from communicating
freely and mutually with the Roman pontiff. --
Allocution "Maxima quidem," June 9, 1862.
50. Lay authority possesses of itself the right
of presenting bishops, and may require of them to
undertake the administration of the diocese
before they receive canonical institution, and
the Letters Apostolic from the Holy See. --
Allocution "Nunquam fore," Dec. 15, 1856.
51. And, further, the lay government has the
right of deposing bishops from their pastoral
functions, and is not bound to obey the Roman
pontiff in those things which relate to the
institution of bishoprics and the appointment of
bishops. -- Allocution "Acerbissimum," Sept. 27,
1852, Damnatio "Multiplices inter," June 10,
52. Government can, by its own right, alter the
age prescribed by the Church for the religious
profession of women and men; and may require of
all religious orders to admit no person to take
solemn vows without its permission. -- Allocution
"Nunquam fore," Dec. 15, 1856.
53. The laws enacted for the protection of
religious orders and regarding their rights and
duties ought to be abolished; nay, more, civil
Government may lend its assistance to all who
desire to renounce the obligation which they have
undertaken of a religious life, and to break
their vows. Government may also suppress the said
religious orders, as likewise collegiate churches
and simple benefices, even those of advowson and
subject their property and revenues to the
administration and pleasure of the civil power.
-- Allocutions "Acerbissimum," Sept. 27, 1852;
"Probe memineritis," Jan. 22, 1855; "Cum saepe,"
July 26, 1855.
54. Kings and princes are not only exempt from
the jurisdiction of the Church, but are superior
to the Church in deciding questions of
jurisdiction. -- Damnatio "Multiplices inter,"
June 10, 1851.
55. The Church ought to be separated from the
.State, and the State from the Church. --
Allocution "Acerbissimum," Sept. 27, 1852.
VII. ERRORS CONCERNING NATURAL AND CHRISTIAN
56. Moral laws do not stand in need of the divine
sanction, and it is not at all necessary that
human laws should be made conformable to the laws
of nature and receive their power of binding from
God. -- Allocution "Maxima quidem," June 9, 1862.
57. The science of philosophical things and
morals and also civil laws may and ought to keep
aloof from divine and ecclesiastical authority.
58. No other forces are to be recognized except
those which reside in matter, and all the
rectitude and excellence of morality ought to be
placed in the accumulation and increase of riches
by every possible means, and the gratification of
pleasure. -- Ibid.; Encyclical "Quanto
conficiamur," Aug. 10, 1863.
59. Right consists in the material fact. All
human duties are an empty word, and all human
facts have the force of right. -- Allocution
"Maxima quidem," June 9, 1862.
60. Authority is nothing else but numbers and the
sum total of material forces. -- Ibid.
61. The injustice of an act when successful
inflicts no injury on the sanctity of right. --
Allocution "Jamdudum cernimus," March 18, 1861.
62. The principle of non-intervention, as it is
called, ought to be proclaimed and observed. --
Allocution "Novos et ante," Sept. 28, 1860.
63. It is lawful to refuse obedience to
legitimate princes, and even to rebel against
them. -- Encyclical "Qui pluribus," Nov. 9, 1864;
Allocution "Quibusque vestrum," Oct. 4, 1847;
"Noscitis et Nobiscum," Dec. 8, 1849; Apostolic
Letter "Cum Catholica."
64. The violation of any solemn oath, as well as
any wicked and flagitious action repugnant to the
eternal law, is not only not blamable but is
altogether lawful and worthy of the highest
praise when done through love of country. --
Allocution "Quibus quantisque," April 20, 1849.
VIII. ERRORS CONCERNING CHRISTIAN MARRIAGE
65. The doctrine that Christ has raised marriage
to the dignity of a sacrament cannot be at all
tolerated. -- Apostolic Letter "Ad Apostolicae,"
Aug. 22, 1851.
66. The Sacrament of Marriage is only a something
accessory to the contract and separate from it,
and the sacrament itself consists in the nuptial
benediction alone. -- Ibid.
67. By the law of nature, the marriage tie is not
indissoluble, and in many cases divorce properly
so called may be decreed by the civil authority.
-- Ibid.; Allocution "Acerbissimum," Sept. 27,
68. The Church has not the power of establishing
diriment impediments of marriage, but such a
power belongs to the civil authority by which
existing impediments are to be removed. --
Damnatio "Multiplices inter," June 10, 1851.
69. In the dark ages the Church began to
establish diriment impediments, not by her own
right, but by using a power borrowed from the
State. -- Apostolic Letter "Ad Apostolicae," Aug.
70. The canons of the Council of Trent, which
anathematize those who dare to deny to the Church
the right of establishing diriment impediments,
either are not dogmatic or must be understood as
referring to such borrowed power. -- Ibid.
71. The form of solemnizing marriage prescribed
by the Council of Trent, under pain of nullity,
does not bind in cases where the civil law lays
down another form, and declares that when this
new form is used the marriage shall be valid.
72. Boniface VIII was the first who declared that
the vow of chastity taken at ordination renders
marriage void. -- Ibid.
73. In force of a merely civil contract there may
exist between Christians a real marriage, and it
is false to say either that the marriage contract
between Christians is always a sacrament, or that
there is no contract if the sacrament be
excluded. -- Ibid.; Letter to the King of
Sardinia, Sept. 9, 1852; Allocutions
"Acerbissimum," Sept. 27, 1852, "Multis
gravibusque," Dec. 17, 1860.
74. Matrimonial causes and espousals belong by
their nature to civil tribunals. -- Encyclical
"Qui pluribus," Nov. 9 1846; Damnatio
"Multiplices inter," June 10, 1851, "Ad
Apostolicae," Aug. 22, 1851; Allocution
"Acerbissimum," Sept. 27, 1852.
IX. ERRORS REGARDING THE CIVIL POWER OF THE
75. The children of the Christian and Catholic
Church are divided amongst themselves about the
compatibility of the temporal with the spiritual
power. -- "Ad Apostolicae," Aug. 22, 1851.
76. The abolition of the temporal power of which
the Apostolic See is possessed would contribute
in the greatest degree to the liberty and
prosperity of the Church. -- Allocutions "Quibus
quantisque," April 20, 1849, "Si semper antea,"
May 20, 1850.
X. ERRORS HAVING REFERENCE TO MODERN LIBERALISM
77. In the present day it is no longer expedient
that the Catholic religion should be held as the
only religion of the State, to the exclusion of
all other forms of worship. -- Allocution "Nemo
vestrum," July 26, 1855.
78. Hence it has been wisely decided by law, in
some Catholic countries, that persons coming to
reside therein shall enjoy the public exercise of
their own peculiar worship. -- Allocution
"Acerbissimum," Sept. 27, 1852.
79. Moreover, it is false that the civil liberty
of every form of worship, and the full power,
given to all, of overtly and publicly manifesting
any opinions whatsoever and thoughts, conduce
more easily to corrupt the morals and minds of
the people, and to propagate the pest of
indifferentism. -- Allocution "Nunquam fore,"
Dec. 15, 1856.
80. The Roman Pontiff can, and ought to,
reconcile himself, and come to terms with
progress, liberalism and modern civilization.-
-Allocution "Jamdudum cernimus," March 18, 1861.
The faith teaches us and human reason
demonstrates that a double order of things
exists, and that we must therefore distinguish
between the two earthly powers, the one of
natural origin which provides for secular affairs
and the tranquillity of human society, the other
of supernatural origin, which presides over the
City of God, that is to say the Church of Christ,
which has been divinely instituted for the sake
of souls and of eternal salvation.... The duties
of this twofold power are most wisely ordered in
such a way that to God is given what is God's
(Matt. 22:21), and because of God to Caesar what
is Caesar's, who is great because he is smaller
than heaven. Certainly the Church has never
disobeyed this divine command, the Church which
always and everywhere instructs the faithful to
show the respect which they should inviolably
have for the supreme authority and its secular
. . . Venerable Brethren, you see clearly enough
how sad and full of perils is the condition of
Catholics in the regions of Europe which We have
mentioned. Nor are things any better or
circumstances calmer in America, where some
regions are so hostile to Catholics that their
governments seem to deny by their actions the
Catholic faith they claim to profess. In fact,
there, for the last few years, a ferocious war on
the Church, its institutions and the rights of
the Apostolic See has been raging.... Venerable
Brothers, it is surprising that in our time such
a great war is being waged against the Catholic
Church. But anyone who knows the nature, desires
and intentions of the sects, whether they be
called masonic or bear another name, and compares
them with the nature the systems and the vastness
of the obstacles by which the Church has been
assailed almost everywhere, cannot doubt that the
present misfortune must mainly be imputed to the
frauds and machinations of these sects. It is
from them that the synagogue of Satan, which
gathers its troops against the Church of Christ,
takes its strength. In the past Our predecessors,
vigilant even from the beginning in Israel, had
already denounced them to the kings and the
nations, and had condemned them time and time
again, and even We have not failed in this duty.
If those who would have been able to avert such a
deadly scourge had only had more faith in the
supreme Pastors of the Church! But this scourge,
winding through sinuous caverns, . . . deceiving
many with astute frauds, finally has arrived at
the point where it comes forth impetuously from
its hiding places and triumphs as a powerful
master. Since the throng of its propagandists has
grown enormously, these wicked groups think that
they have already become masters of the world and
that they have almost reached their
pre-established goal. Having sometimes obtained
what they desired, and that is power, in several
countries, they boldly turn the help of powers
and authorities which they have secured to trying
to submit the Church of God to the most cruel
servitude, to undermine the foundations on which
it rests, to contaminate its splendid qualities;
and, moreover, to strike it with frequent blows,
to shake it, to overthrow it, and, if possible,
to make it disappear completely from the earth.
Things being thus, Venerable Brothers, make every
effort to defend the faithful which are entrusted
to you against the insidious contagion of these
sects and to save from perdition those who
unfortunately have inscribed themselves in such
sects. Make known and attack those who, whether
suffering from, or planning, deception, are not
afraid to affirm that these shady congregations
aim only at the profit of society, at progress
and mutual benefit. Explain to them often and
impress deeply on their souls the Papal
constitutions on this subject and teach, them
that the masonic associations are anathematized
by them not only in Europe but also in America
and wherever they may be in the whole world.
To the Archbishops and Bishops of Prussia
concerning the situation of the Catholic Church
faced with persecution by that Government....
But although they (the bishops resisting
persecution) should be praised rather than
pitied, the scorn of episcopal dignity, the
violation of the liberty and the rights of the
Church, the ill treatment which does not only
oppress those dioceses, but also the others of
the Kingdom of Prussia, demand that We, owing to
the Apostolic office with which God has entrusted
us in spite of Our insufficient merit, protest
against laws which have produced such great evils
and make one fear even greater ones; and as far
as we are able to do so with the sacred authority
of divine law, We vindicate for the Church the
freedom which has been trodden underfoot with
sacrilegious violence. That is why by this letter
we intend to do Our duty by announcing openly to
all those whom this matter concerns and to the
whole Catholic world, that these laws are null
and void because they are absolutely contrary to
the divine constitution of the Church. In fact,
with respect to matters which concern the holy
ministry, Our Lord did not put the mighty of this
century in charge, but Saint Peter, whom he
entrusted not only with feeding his sheep, but
also the goats; therefore no power in the world,
however great it may be, can deprive of the
pastoral office those whom the Holy Ghost has
made Bishops in order to feed the Church of God.
Freemasonry must die, or liberty must die." -- Charles G. Finney
FREEMASONRY IS KABBALISTIC, NOT CHRISTIAN!
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THOSE WHO WILL NOT BE RULED BY CHRIST WILL BE RULED BY ANTI-CHRIST.
"Those who sin are slaves, and slaves have no rights."
-- Jesus Christ, John 8:34
"Qabalah is the heart of the
Western Hermetic tradition; it is the foundation upon which the art
of Western magic rests." -- Sandra and Chic Cicero, the authors of "The
Essencial Golden Dawn: An Introduction to High Magic",
page 96. Llewlellyn Publications
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"Join me in battle, little children,
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Mother Mary [source: Father Gobbi,
Evolution & Freemasonry
"THEIR GOD IS THE DEVIL.
THEIR LAW IS UNTRUTH.
THEIR CULT IS TURPITUDE."
Pope Pius IX, speaking of
"Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of
and the star of your god
figures which ye make to worship
them; and I will carry you away
beyond Babylon." Acts 7:43 KJV
Wherefore come out from among
them, and be ye separate,
saith the Lord, and touch not
the unclean thing.." (II
Corinthians 6:18 KJV)
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