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"Tear away the mask from Freemasonry, Pope Leo XIII
GRAVES DE COMMUNI RE

Encyclical   of   Pope   leo  XIII  on  Christian
Democracy January 18, 1901

To  Our  Venerable   Brethren   the   Patriarchs,
Primates,  Archbishops,  20  Bishops,  and  other
Ordinaries  in  Peace  and  Communion  with   the
ApostolicSee.

1.  The grave discussions on economical questions
which for some timepast have disturbed the  peace
of  several  countries of the world aregrowing in
frequency and intensity to such a degree that the
minds  ofthoughtful  men  are filled, and rightly
so, with worry and alarm.  Thesediscussions  take
their  rise  in the bad philosophical and ethical
teaching 20 which is  now  widespread  among  the
people.  The  changes,  also, which themechanical
inventions  of  the  age  have  introduced,   the
rapidity  ofcommunication between places, and the
devices of every kind  fordiminishing  labor  and
increasing   gain,  all  add  bitterness  to  the
strife;and, lastly, matters have been brought  to
such  a  pass  by the strugglebetween capital and
labor,  fomented  as  it   is   by   professional
agitators,  20  that  the  countries  where these
disturbances most frequently occur findthemselves
confronted with ruin and disaster.

2.  At  the  very beginning of Our pontificate We
clearly  pointed  out  whatthe  peril  was  which
confronted society on this head, and We deemed it
Ourduty  to  warn  Catholics,   in   unmistakable
language,[1]  how  great  the  errorwas which was
lurking in the utterances of socialism,  and  how
great  thedanger  was  that  threatened  not only
their   temporal   possessions,   but   alsotheir
morality  and  religion.  That was the purpose of
Our  encyclical  letterQuod  Apostolici   Muneris
which  We published on the 28th of Decemberin the
year 1878; but,  as  these  dangers  day  by  day
threatened   stillgreater   disaster,   both   to
individuals and the commonwealth, We strove  with
20  all  the  more energy to avert them. This was
the object of Our encyclicalRerum Novarum of  the
15th  of May, 1891, in which we dwelt at lengthon
the rights  and  duties  which  both  classes  of
society-those  namely,  whocontrol  capital,  and
those who contribute labor-are bound in  relation
toeach  other;  and  at the same time, We made it
evident that  the  remedies  20  which  are  most
useful  to  protect the cause of religion, and to
terminatethe  contest   between   the   different
classes  of  society,  were  to  be  found  inthe
precepts of the Gospel.

3. Nor, with God's grace, were Our hopes entirely
frustrated.  Eventhose  who  are  not  Catholics,
moved  by  the  power  of  truth,   avowed   that
theChurch  must  be credited with a watchful care
over all classes of society,and especially  those
whom  fortune  had  least  favored. Catholics, of
course, profited abundantly by these letters, for
they  not  only  received  20  encouragement  and
strength for the excellent undertakings in  which
theywere  engaged,  but  also  obtained the light
which they needed in order tostudy this order  of
problems  with  great sureness and success. Hence
ithappened that the differences of opinion  which
prevailed  among  them  were 20 either removed or
lessened. In the order of action, much  has  been
done  infavor  of  the proletariat, especially in
those places where poverty was atits worst.  Many
new  institutions  were  set on foot, those which
werealready established were increased,  and  all
reaped  the  benefit  of agreater stability. Such
are, for instance, the popular bureaus  which  20
supply  information  to the uneducated; the rural
banks  which  make  loans  tosmall  farmers;  the
societies  for  mutual help or relief; the unions
ofworking   men   and   other   associations   or
institutions  of  the  same  kind. Thus,under the
auspices of  the  Church,  a  measure  of  united
action  among  Catholics  was secured, as well as
some planning in the setting up  of  20  agencies
for  the protection of the masses which, in fact,
are as oftenoppressed by guile  and  exploitation
of their necessities as by their ownindigence and
toil.

4. This work of popular aid  had,  at  first,  no
name  of its own. The nameof Christian Socialism,
with  its  derivatives,  which  was  adopted   by
somewas   very  properly  allowed  to  fall  into
disuse. Afterwards, some asked tohave  it  called
the  popular Christian Movement. In the countries
most concerned with this matter, there  are  some
who  are  known  as Social Christians. Elsewhere,
the   movement   is   described   as    Christian
Democracyand    its    partisans   as   Christian
Democrats, in opposition  to  what  thesocialists
call  Social  Democracy.  Not  much  exception is
taken to  the  firstof  these  two  names,  i.e.,
Social Christians, but many excellent men findthe
term Christian Democracy objectionable. They hold
it  to  be veryambiguous and for this reason open
to  two  objections.   It   seems   byimplication
covertly  to  favor  popular  government  and  to
disparage     othermethods      of      political
administration.    Secondly,    it   appears   to
belittlereligion by restricting its scope to  the
care  of  the  poor,  as  if the othersections of
society were not of its concern. More than  that,
under  theshadow  of  its name there might easily
lurk a  design  to  attack  alllegitimate  power,
either  civil  or  sacred.  Wherefore, since this
discussionis now so widespread,  and  so  bitter,
the  consciousness of duty warns Us toput a check
on this controversy and to define what  Catholics
are  to  think on this matter. We also propose to
describe how the movement may extendits scope and
be made more useful to the commonwealth.

5.  What  Social  Democracy is and what Christian
Democracy ought to be,assuredly no one can doubt.
The  first,  with due consideration to thegreater
or less intemperance of its utterance, is carried
to  such  anexcess  by  many  as to maintain that
there is really nothing existing abovethe natural
order  of  things,  and  that the acquirement and
enjoyment  of  20  corporal  and  external  goods
constitute man's happiness. It aims at puttingall
government in the hands of the  masses,  reducing
all   ranks  to  the  samelevel,  abolishing  all
distinction     of     class,     and     finally
introducingcommunity  of  goods. Hence, the right
to own private property is  to  beabrogated,  and
whatever  property  a  man possesses, or whatever
means of 20 livelihood he has, is to be common to
all.

6.  As  against this, Christian Democracy, by the
fact  that  it  is  Christian,  is   built,   and
necessarily   so,  on  the  basic  principles  of
divinefaith,   and   it   must   provide   better
conditions   for  the  masses,  with  theulterior
object of promoting the perfection of souls  made
for    thingseternal.    Hence,   for   Christian
Democracy, justice is sacred; it must 20 maintain
that   the  right  of  acquiring  and  possessing
property cannot beimpugned, and it must safeguard
the  various  distinctions  and  degrees whichare
indispensable in every wellordered  commonwealth.
Finally,  it  mustendeavor  to  preserve in every
human society the form and the characterwhich God
ever  impresses  on  it.  It is clear, therefore,
that there in 20 nothing in common between Social
and  Christian  Democracy.  They  differ fromeach
other as much as the sect  of  socialism  differs
from the profession ofChristianity.

7.  Moreover, it would be a crime to distort this
name of Christian 20 Democracy to politics,  for,
although  democracy,  both in its philologicaland
philosophical  significations,  implies   popular
government, yet in itspresent application it must
be employed without any politicalsignificance, so
as  to  mean  nothing  else  than this beneficent
Christianaction in behalf of the people. For, the
laws  of  nature and of the Gospel,which by right
are superior  to  all  human  contingencies,  are
necessarilyindependent of all particular forms of
civil government, while at the sametime they  are
in  harmony with everything that is not repugnant
to moralityand justice. They are, therefore,  and
they  must  remain  absolutely  free  20 from the
passions and  the  vicissitudes  of  parties,  so
that,  under  whateverpolitical constitution, the
citizens  may  and  ought  to  abide   by   those
lawswhich  command  them  to  love  God above all
things, and their  neighbors  asthemselves.  This
has  always  been  the  policy of the Church. The
Roman 20  Pontiffs  acted  upon  this  principle,
whenever  they  dealt with differentcountries, no
matter what  might  be  the  character  of  their
governments.Hence,  the  mind  and  the action of
Catholics devoted to promoting thewelfare of  the
working  classes  can  never be actuated with the
purpose offavoring and introducing one government
in place of another.

8.  In  the  same  manner,  we  must  remove from
Christian Democracy  anotherpossible  subject  of
reproach,  namely,  that  while looking after the
advantage of the working people it should seem to
overlook  the  upperclasses  of society, for they
also are of the  greatest  use  in  preservingand
perfecting the commonwealth. The Christian law of
charity, which has 20 just been  mentioned,  will
prevent us from so doing. For it embraces allmen,
irrespective of ranks, as members of one and  the
same family, children of the same most beneficent
Father, redeemed by the same  Saviour,and  called
to  the same eternal heritage. Hence the doctrine
of the Apostle, who warns us  that  "We  are  one
body  and one spirit called to theone hope in our
vocation; one Lord, one faith  and  one  baptism;
one  God  andthe  Father of all who is above all,
and through all, and in us all."[2]Wherefore,  on
account   of  the  union  established  by  nature
between thecommon people and the other classes of
society,  and  which  Christian brotherhood makes
still closer, whatever  diligence  we  devote  to
assistingthe  people  will  certainly profit also
the other classes, the more sosince, as  will  be
thereafter  shown,  their  co-operation is proper
andnecessary for the success of this undertaking.

9. Let there be no question  of  fostering  under
this  name of ChristianDemocracy any intention of
diminishing   the   spirit   of   obedience,   or
ofwithdrawing  people  from  their lawful rulers.
Both the natural and theChristian law command  us
to  revere  those  who  in  their  various grades
areshown above us in the  State,  and  to  submit
ourselves  to their just commands. It is quite in
keeping with our dignity as  men  and  Christians
toobey,  not only exteriorly, but from the heart,
as  the  Apostle  expressesit,  "for  conscience'
sake,"  when  he  commands  us  to  keep our soul
subjectto the higher powers.[3] It  is  abhorrent
to the profession of Christianity 20 that any one
should feel unwilling to be subject and  obedient
to  those whorule in the Church, and first of all
to the  bishops  whom  (withoutprejudice  to  the
universal  power  of the Roman Pontiff) "the Holy
Spirithas placed to rule the Church of God  which
Christ  has  purchased  by  HisBlood."[4]  He who
thinks or acts otherwise is  guilty  of  ignoring
the  graveprecept  of  the Apostle who bids us to
obey our rulers and to  be  subject  tothem,  for
they  watch  as  having to give an account of our
souls.[5]  Let  thefaithful  everywhere   implant
these  principles  deep  in  their souls, and put
them in practice in their daily life, and let the
ministers  of the Gospelmeditate them profoundly,
and   incessantly   labor,    not    merely    by
exhortationbut  especially  by  example, to teach
them to others.

10. We have recalled these principles,  which  on
other  occasions We hadalready elucidated, in the
hope that all dispute about the name of Christian
Democracy  will  cease  and that all suspicion of
any danger comingfrom  what  the  name  signifies
will  be  put  at rest. And with reason do Wehope
so; for, neglecting the opinions of  certain  men
whose views on the 20 nature and efficacy of this
kind  of  Christian  Democracy   are   not   free
fromexaggeration  and  from  error,  let  no  one
condemn that zeal which,  inaccordance  with  the
natural   and  divine  laws,  aims  to  make  the
condition ofthose who  toil  more  tolerable;  to
enable them to obtain, little by little, 20 those
means by which they may provide for  the  future;
to  help them topractice in public and in private
the duties which morality and  religioninculcate;
to aid them to feel that they are not animals but
men, notheathens but Christians, and so to enable
them to strive more zealouslyand more eagerly for
the one thing  which  is  necessary;  viz.,  that
ultimate  20 good for which we are born into this
world. This is the intention; this isthe work  of
those who wish that the people should be animated
by Christiansentiments and  should  be  protected
from    the   contamination   of   socialismwhich
threatens them.

11. We  have  designedly  made  mention  here  of
virtue  and  religion.  For,it  is the opinion of
some, and the error is already very common,  that
thesocial  question  is  merely  an economic one,
whereas in point of factit is, above all, a moral
and  religious matter, and for that reason mustbe
settled  by  the  principles  of   morality   and
according  to  the dictates ofreligion. For, even
though wages are doubled and the hours  of  labor
areshortened  and  food is cheapened, yet, if the
working man hearkens  to  thedoctrines  that  are
taught on this subject, as he is prone to do, and
isprompted by the  examples  set  before  him  to
throw  off respect for God and 20 to enter upon a
life of immorality, his labors and his gain  will
avail himnaught.

12.  Trial and experience have made it abundantly
clear that many aworkman  lives  in  cramped  and
miserable  quarters, in spite of his shorterhours
and larger wages,  simply  because  he  has  cast
aside  the  restraints  ofmorality  and religion.
Take away the instinct which Christian wisdom has
20  planted  and  nurtured  in men's hearts, take
away foresight,  temperance,frugality,  patience,
and  other  rightful,  natural  habits, no matter
howmuch he may  strive,  he  will  never  achieve
prosperity.   That   is  the  reasonwhy  We  have
incessantly exhorted  Catholics  to  enter  these
associations  forbettering  the  condition of the
laboring  classes,  and  to  organize  other   20
undertakings with the same object in view; but We
have likewise warnedthem that all this should  be
done under the auspices of religion, with itshelp
and under its guidance.

13. The zeal of Catholics on behalf of the masses
is  especially praiseworthy because it is engaged
in the very same field in which, underthe  benign
inspiration  of the Church the active industry of
charity hasalways labored, adapting itself in all
cases  to the varying exigencies ofthe times. For
the law of mutual charity perfects, as  it  were,
the  law ofjustice, not merely by giving each man
his due and in not impeding him inthe exercise of
his  rights,  but  also  by befriending him, "not
with theword alone, or the lips, but in deed  and
in  truth";[6]  being  mindful  ofwhat  Christ so
lovingly said to His own: "A  new  commandment  I
give unto 20 you, that you love one another, as I
have loved you, that you love alsoone another. By
this   shall   all  men  know  that  you  are  My
disciples, if youhave love one for the other."[7]
This  zeal  in  coming to the rescue of ourfellow
men should, of course, be solicitous,  first  for
the  eternal  good  of  20 souls, but it must not
neglect what is good and helpful for this life.

14. We should remember what Christ  said  to  the
disciple  of  the Baptistwho asked him: "Art thou
he that art to come or look we for another?"[8]He
invoked,  as  proof  of  the mission given to Him
among men, His exerciseof  charity,  quoting  for
them the text of Isaias: "The blind see, the lame
walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the
dead rise again, thepoor have the Gospel preached
to   them."[9]   And   speaking   also   of   the
lastjudgment  and  of the rewards and punishments
He will assign, He  declaredthat  He  would  take
special  account  of  the  charity  men exercised
towardeach other. And in that discourse there  is
one   thing   that   especially  20  excites  our
surprise, viz., that Christ omits those works  of
mercy whichcomfort the soul and referring only to
those which comfort the body, Heregards  them  as
being  done to Himself: "For I was hungry and you
gave Meto eat; I was thirsty and you gave  Me  to
drink;  I  was  a stranger and you 20 took Me in;
naked and you covered Me; sick  and  you  visited
Me; I was inprison and you came to Me."[10]

15.  To  the  teachings  which enjoin the twofold
charity of  spiritual  andcorporal  works  Christ
adds  His  own  example,  so that no one may fail
torecognize the importance which He  attaches  to
it.  In  the  present instancewe recall the sweet
words that came from His paternal heart: "I  have
pityon  the multitude,"[11] as well as the desire
He had to assist them even ifit were necessary to
invoke   His  miraculous  power.  Of  His  tender
compassionwe have the proclamation made  in  holy
Writ,  viz.,  that  "He  went aboutdoing good and
healing  all   that   were   oppressed   by   the
devil."[12]  This  law  20  of  charity  which He
imposed upon His Apostles, they in the most  holy
andzealous  way put into practice; and after them
those who  embracedChristianity  originated  that
wonderful variety of institutions for alleviating
all the miseries by which mankind  is  afflicted.
And  theseinstitutions carried on and continually
increased their  powers  of  reliefand  were  the
especial  glories  of  Christianity  and  of  the
civilization ofwhich it was the source,  so  that
right-minded   men   never  fail  to  admirethose
foundations, aware as they are of  the  proneness
of  men  to concernthemselves about their own and
neglect the needs of others.

16. Nor are we to eliminate from the list of good
works   the   giving   ofmoney  for  charity,  in
pursuance of  what  Christ  has  said:  "But  yet
thatwhich  remaineth,  give  alms.''[13]  Against
this, the  socialist  cries  outand  demands  its
abolition  as  injurious to the native dignity of
man. But,if it is done in the  manner  which  the
Scripture  enjoins,[14] and in 20 conformity with
the true Christian spirit,  it  neither  connotes
pride inthe giver nor inflicts shame upon the one
who receives. Far from beingdishonorable for man,
it  draws  closer  the  bonds  of  human  society
ofaugmenting the force of the obligation  of  the
duties  which  men  are  underwith regard to each
other. No one is so rich that he  does  not  need
another's  help;  no  one  so  poor  as not to be
useful in some way  to  hisfellow  man;  and  the
disposition  to  ask  assistance from others with
confidence and to grant it with kindness is  part
of  our very nature. Thus,justice and charity are
so linked with  each  other,  under  the  equable
andsweet  law  of Christ, as to form an admirable
cohesive power in human 20 society  and  to  lead
all   of  its  members  to  exercise  a  sort  of
providence  inlooking  after  their  own  and  in
seeking the common good as well.

17. As regards not merely the temporary aid given
to the laboring 20 classes, but the establishment
of  permanent  institutions in their behalf,it is
most commendable for charity to  undertake  them.
It  will  thus  seethat  more  certain  and  more
reliable means of assistance will  be  affordedto
the  necessitous. That kind of help is especially
worthy of recognition which forms  the  minds  of
mechanics and laborers to thrift and foresight,so
that in course of time they may be able, in  part
at  least,  to  look outfor themselves. To aim at
that is not only  to  dignify  the  duty  of  the
richtoward  the  poor,  but  to  elevate the poor
themselves, for, while it urgesthem  to  work  in
order  to  improve  their condition, it preserves
themmeantime    from    danger,    it    refrains
immoderation  in their desires, and actsas a spur
in the practice of virtue. Since, therefore, this
is of suchgreat avail and so much in keeping with
the spirit of the times, it is a 20 worthy object
for  the  charity  of  righteous men to undertake
with prudenceand zeal.

18. Let it be understood,  therefore,  that  this
devotion  of  Catholics tocomfort and elevate the
mass  of  the  people  is  in  keeping  with  the
spiritof  the  Church  and is most conformable to
the examples which the Church hasalways  held  up
for  imitation. It matters very little whether it
goes under 20 the name of the  Popular  Christian
Movement     or     Christian    Democracy,    if
theinstructions that have been  given  by  Us  be
fully  carried  out with fittingobedience. But it
is of  the  greatest  importance  that  Catholics
should  beone  in  mind,  will,  and  action in a
matter of such great moment. And it is 20 also of
importance    that   the   influence   of   these
undertakings    should    beextended    by    the
multiplication  of  men  and means devoted to the
sameobject.

19. Especially  must  there  be  appeals  to  the
kindly assistance of thosewhose rank, wealth, and
intellectual  as  well   as   spiritual   culture
givethem  a certain standing in the community. If
their help is not extended,scarcely anything  can
be   done   which  will  help  in  promoting  the
wellbeingof  the  people.  Assuredly,  the   more
earnestly   many   of  those  who  are  prominent
citizens  conspire  effectively  to  attain  that
object,  the  quickerand  surer  will  the end be
reached.   We   would,   however,    have    them
understandthat  they  are not at all free to look
after or neglect those who  happen  tobe  beneath
them,  but  that  it is a strict duty which binds
them. For, noone  lives  only  for  his  personal
advantage  in a community; he lives for thecommon
good  as  well,  so  that,  when  others   cannot
contribute their sharefor the general good, those
who  can  do  so   are   obliged   to   make   up
thedeficiency.  The  very  extent of the benefits
they have received increases  20  the  burden  of
their responsibility, and a stricter account will
have to berendered  to  God  who  bestowed  those
blessings  upon them. What should alsourge all to
the fulfillment of their duty in this  regard  is
the widespreaddisaster which will eventually fall
upon all classes of society if hisassistance does
not  arrive  in time; and therefore is it that he
whoneglects the cause of the distressed masses is
disregarding  his  owninterest as well as that of
the community.

20. If  this  action,  which  is  social  in  the
Christian  sense of the termdevelops and grows in
accordance with its own  nature,  there  will  be
nodanger,   as   is   feared,  that  those  other
institutions, which  the  piety  ofour  ancestors
have  established  and which are now flourishing,
will  decline  20   or   be   absorbed   by   new
foundations.  Both  of  them spring from the same
rootof charity and religion, and not only do  not
conflict  with  each other, butcan easily be made
to  coalesce  and  combine  so  perfectly  as  to
provide,  allthe  better  by the pooling of their
beneficent efforts, for the  needs  ofthe  masses
and for the daily increasing perils to which they
are exposed.

21. The condition of things at present proclaims,
and  proclaims vehemently, that there is need for
a union of brave minds with all theresources they
can  command. The harvest of misery is before our
eyes,  andthe  dreadful  projects  of  the   most
disastrous  national  upheavals arethreatening us
from  the  growing  power  of   the   socialistic
movement.  They  20 have insidiously worked their
way into the very heart of the  community,and  in
the  darkness  of their secret gatherings, and in
the open light ofday, in their writings and-their
harangues,  they  are  urging the massesonward to
sedition; they fling aside religious  discipline;
they  scornduties;  they  clamor only for rights;
they are working incessantly on themultitudes  of
the  needy  which  daily grow greater, and which,
because oftheir poverty are  easily  deluded  and
led  into  error. It is equally theconcern of the
State and of religion, and all  good  men  should
deem  it  asacred duty to preserve and guard both
in the honor which is their due.

22. That this most desirable agreement  of  wills
should  be  maintained,it  is  essential that all
refrain  from  giving  any  cause  of  dissension
whichhurt  and divide minds. Hence, in newspapers
and in speeches  to  the  people,let  them  avoid
subtle  and  practically  useless questions which
are  neither  20  easy  to  solve  nor  easy   to
understand  except by minds of unusual abilityand
after the most serious study. It is quite natural
for  people  tohesitate on doubtful subjects, and
that different men should holddifferent opinions,
but  those  who  sincerely  seek after truth will
preserveequanimity,  modesty,  and  courtesy   in
matters  of dispute. They will not letdifferences
of opinion deteriorate into conflicts  of  wills.
Besides,  to 20 whatever opinion a man's judgment
may  incline,  if  the  matter  is   yet   opento
discussion,  let  him  keep  it,  provided  he be
always disposed to listenwith religious obedience
to what the Holy See may decide on the question.

23.   The   action   of  Catholics,  of  whatever
description it  may  be,  willwork  with  greater
effect  if all of the various associations, while
preserving their individual rights, move together
under  one  primary anddirective force. In Italy,
We desire that this directive force shouldemanate
from  the  Institute  of  Catholic Congresses and
Reunions so often 20 praised by Us, to which  Our
predecessor  and  We  Ourselves have committedthe
charge  of  controlling  the  common  action   of
Catholics  under  the  authority and direction of
the bishops of the country. So let it be forother
nations,   in   case   there   be   any   leading
organization of  thisdescription  to  which  this
matter has been legitimately entrusted.

24.  Now, in all questions of this sort where the
interests of theChurch and the  Christian  people
are so closely allied, it is evident whatthey who
are in the sacred ministry should do, and  it  is
clear   how   industrious   they   should  be  in
inculcating right  doctrine  and  in  teachingthe
duties  of  prudence  and  charity. To go out and
move among the people,  20  to  exert  a  healthy
influence  on  them by adapting themselves to the
presentcondition of things,  is  what  more  than
once  in  addressing  the  clergy Wehave advised.
More frequently, also, in writing to the  bishops
and   otherdignitaries   of   the   Church,   and
especially of late,[15] We have  lauded  this  20
affectionate   solicitude   for  the  people  and
declared it to be the  specialduty  of  both  the
secular   and   regular   clergy.   But   in  the
fulfillment ofthis obligation let  there  be  the
greatest  caution and prudence exerted,and let it
be done after the fashion of the saints. Francis,
who  was poor 20 and humble, Vincent of Paul, the
father of the  afflicted  classes,  and  verymany
others  whom  the Church keeps ever in her memory
were wont to lavishtheir care  upon  the  people,
but  in  such wise as not to be engrossedovermuch
or to be unmindful of themselves  or  to  let  it
prevent  them  from  20  laboring  with  the same
assiduity in the perfection  of  their  own  soul
andthe cultivation of virtue.

25.  There remains one thing upon which We desire
to insist very strongly, in which  not  only  the
ministers  of  the  Gospel, but also allthose who
are devoting  themselves  to  the  cause  of  the
people,  can  withvery  little  difficulty  bring
about  a  most  commendable   result.   That   is
toinculcate  in  the  minds  of  the people, in a
brotherly way and  whenever  the  20  opportunity
presents  itself, the following principles; viz.:
to keep aloofon all occasions from seditious acts
and seditious men; to hold inviolatethe rights of
others; to show a proper respect to superiors; to
willinglyperform  the  work  in  which  they  are
employed; not to grow weary  of  therestraint  of
family   life   which   in   many   ways   is  so
advantageous; to keep totheir religious practices
above  all,  and  in  their  hardships and trials
tohave recourse to the Church for consolation. In
the  furtherance  of allthis, it is of great help
to propose the splendid example of  the  Holy  20
Family  of Nazareth, and to advise the invocation
of its protection, and italso helps to remind the
people   of   the   examples  of  sanctity  which
haveshone in the midst of poverty, and to hold up
before  them  the  reward  thatawaits them in the
better life to come.

26. Finally, We  recur  again  to  what  We  have
already   declared  and  Weinsist  upon  it  most
solemnly;   viz.,    that    whatever    projects
individuals  orassociations  form  in this matter
should be formed  under  episcopalauthority.  Let
them  not  be  led astray by an excessive zeal in
the cause ofcharity.  If  it  leads  them  to  be
wanting  in proper submission, it is not asincere
zeal; it will not  have  any  useful  result  and
cannot  be  acceptableto God. God delights in the
souls of those who put aside their own designsand
obey  the  rulers  of  His Church as if they were
obeying Him;  He  assists  them  even  when  they
attempt  difficult things and benignly leads them
totheir  desired  end.  Let  them   show,   also,
examples   of   virtue,  so  as  to  provethat  a
Christian   is   a   hater   of   idleness    and
self-indulgence,    that    hestands   firm   and
unconquered in the midst of  adversity.  Examples
of  thatkind  have  a  power  of moving people to
dispositions of soul that make for 20  salvation,
and  have  all the greater force as the condition
of those whogive them is  higher  in  the  social
scale.

27. We exhort you, venerable brethren, to provide
for all this, as thenecessities  of  men  and  of
places may require, according to your prudenceand
your zeal, meeting as usual in council to combine
with  each other inyour plans for the furtherance
of these projects. Let your  solicitudewatch  and
let  your  authority be effective in controlling,
compelling, and 20 also in preventing,  lest  any
one  under  the  pretext  of good should causethe
vigor of sacred discipline to be relaxed  or  the
order  which  Christ hasestablished in His Church
to be disturbed. Thus, by the rightful,harmonious
and  ever-increasing  labor of all Catholics, let
it  become  moreand   more   evident   that   the
tranquility  of  order  and  the  true prosperity
flourish especially among those peoples whom  the
Church controls andinfluences; and that she holds
it as her sacred duty  to  admonish  every  oneof
what  the  law  of God enjoins, to unite the rich
and the poor in thebonds  of  fraternal  charity,
and  to  lift up and strengthen men's souls inthe
times when adversity presses heavily upon them.

28. Let Our commands and Our wishes be  confirmed
by  the  words  so fullof apostolic charity which
the  blessed  Paul  addressed  to   the   Romans:
"Ibeseech  you therefore brethren, be reformed in
the newness of your  mind;he  that  giveth,  with
simplicity;  he that ruleth, with carefulness; he
thatshoweth mercy, with cheerfulness. Let love be
without dissimulation. Hating that which is evil;
cleaving to that which is good; loving oneanother
with  the  charity  of  brotherhood;  with  honor
preventing  one  another;  in  carefulness,   not
slothful;     rejoicing    in    hope;    patient
intribulation; instant in prayer. Commuicating to
the    necessities    of    thesaints.   Pursuing
hospitality. Rejoice with them that rejoice; weep
withthem  that  weep;  being  of  one mind to one
another; to no man rendering evil  20  for  evil;
providing  good  things  not only in the sight of
God but also inthe sight of men."[16]

29. As a pledge of  these  benefits  receive  the
apostolic   benediction   20   which,   venerable
brethren, We grant most lovingly in the  Lord  to
you andyour clergy and people.

Given  at St. Peter's in Rome, the eighteenth day
of  January,  1901,  thethirteenth  year  of  Our
pontificate.

ENDNOTES

*  1. See above, Quod Apostolici Muneris, no. 79:
Rerum novarum, no. 115.

* 2. Eph. 4:4-6.

* 3. Rom. 13:1, 5.

* 4. Acts 20:28.

* 5. Heb. 13:11.

* 6. 1 John 3:18.

* 7. John 13:34-35.

* 8. Matt. 11:3.

* 9. Matt. 11:4 5.

* 10. Matt. 25:35-36.

* 11. Mark 8:2.

* 12. Acts 10:38.

* 13. Luke 11:41.

* 14. Matt. 6:2-4.

* 15. Letter  to  the  Minister  General  of  the
Minorites,  November 25,1898. In this letter, the
Pope recalled the  instructions  given  inAeterni
Patris  concerning  the  way  to  be  followed in
higher studies;the  doctrine  of  Thomas  Aquinas
should  be  followed by all the religious whowish
truly  to  philosophize  (qui  vere  philosophari
volunt);paramount importance of the study of holy
Scripture; how to preach theword of God; forceful
exhortation  addressed  to  the Franciscans to go
out 20 of their monasteries  and,  following  the
example  of  St. Francis, devotethemselves to the
salvation of the masses; importance of the  Third
Orderof St. Francis with regard to this work. 20

* 16. Rom. 12:1, 2, 8-13, 15-17.


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